Fuel Cell Library

In addition to Fuel Cells 2000’s resources, there is a wealth of information available through the websites of agencies, companies, and organizations involved in the fuel cell industry, as well as numerous books, reports and publications on various industry topics.

Fuel Cells 2000 has compiled an extensive collection of websites, reports, books and other resources to help with research and reporting on fuel cells, including applications, markets, policy and fuels. To search for even more published materials, please use the Amazon.com search box on the left. To view industry reports, articles, charts and presentations by Fuel Cells 2000, go to the Fuel Cells 2000 Resources section of the website. Links found on this page are grouped in the following categories:

General Fuels
Stationary Power Technical
Portable Power Policy
Transportation Market Studies/Cost Analysis


At the bottom of this page, we have archived some of our "Fuel Cell Quarterly" newsletters for historical reference.

Useful Links

The following websites contain great information on fuel cells as well as reports, charts and other resources.

California Fuel Cell Partnership – A coalition of automakers, fuel providers and fuel cell manufacturers working together to demonstrate and promote the potential for fuel cell vehicles as a clean, safe, and practical alternative to vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. Publishes reports and documents focused on California policies and progress, including roadmaps.

Clean Car Options – A website that evaluates and compares alternatives to conventional gasoline-powered vehicles including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, biofuels, hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles.

Clean Energy States Alliance – A nonprofit coalition of state clean energy funds working together to develop and promote clean energy technologies and markets. Publishes numerous reports including ones on fuel cells in supermarkets, renewable hydrogen, stationary fuel cells, and state policies.

Fuel Cell Bus Club – A website of participants in European fuel cell bus projects who are introducing fuel cell transit buses to their fleets and establishing a hydrogen refueling infrastructure in their cities.

Fuel Cell Today – Provides news, industry analysis and market surveys.

International Fuel Cell Bus Collaborative - the International Fuel Cell Bus Collaborative includes industry, transit, government and research enterprises all with the goal of progressing fuel cell bus technology towards commercialization. Website has lots of information on fuel cell bus demonstrations around the world.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory website – NREL offers a wide variety of documents, including fact sheets and technical reports, related to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies that were written or edited by NREL staff and subcontractors. Website includes analysis of DOE fuel cell demonstration programs.

Navigant Research – A market research firm that provides reports on the fuel cell industry.

U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Program website - This site contains, among other resources:



Advanced Fuel Cell Technology – (Monthly) fuel cell newsletter published by Seven Mountains Scientific, Inc.

Beyond Demonstration: The Role of Fuel Cells in DoD’s Energy Strategy – A 2011 report from LMI on the future role of fuel cells for the U.S. Department of Defense.

Fuel Cell Systems Explained - Larminie, J., and Dicks, A., John Wiley & Sons Ltd., West Sussex, United Kingdom, 2nd Edition, April 2003.

Fuel Cell Virtual Journal – Online journal that aims to provide users with an overview of current research in fuel cell science, engineering and technology.

Fuel Cells: Green Power - Study guide developed by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Letter – Online version of this monthly newsletter on the hydrogen and fuel cell industries

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: A Comprehensive Guide - Rebecca L. Busby. 2005.

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells as Strong Partners of Renewable Energy Systems - Commissioned by the European Hydrogen Association (EHA) and the Germany Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (DWV) Authors: J. Schindler, R. Wurster, M. Zerta, H. Landinger, P. Schmidt, W. Weindorf, V. Blandow, Ludwig-Bolkow-Systemtechnik GmbH (LBST). July 2008.

Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan Project (MFCMP) – A report by the Benchmarking and Best Practices Center of Excellence (B2PCOE), managed by ACI Technologies in conjunction with Montana Tech of The University of Montana (MTT) that determines the major fuel cell manufacturing cost drivers, gaps, and best practices. This roadmap addresses the various manufacturing issues that were important for the cost reduction of fuel cells to the Navy and DOD. December 2011.


Stationary Power

California Stationary Fuel Cell Collaborative - Members represent a group of federal, state and non-governmental organizations interested in combining efforts and resources towards commercialization of stationary fuel cells in California. Has a great map of California installations.

Fuel Cells for Power Generation - A brochure published by the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association (formerly U.S. Fuel Cell Council). 2008.

Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis - Robert Remick, NREL, and Douglas Wheeler, DJW Technologies, LLC. This analysis identifies pathways for reducing costs of fuel cell power plants. September 2010.

Parameters Affecting the Performance of a Residential-Scale Stationary Fuel Cell System - Mark W. Davis, A. Hunter Fanney, Michael J. LaBarre, Kenneth R. Henderson, Brian P. Dougherty, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Researchers at the NIST have measured the performance of a residential fuel cell system when subjected to various environmental and load conditions.

PEM Fuel Cells for Distributed Generation - Stephen Lasher; Robert Zogg, P.E.; Eric Carlson; Patrick Couch; Matthew Hooks; Kurt Roth, Ph.D.; and James Brodrick, Ph.D., ASHRAE Journal Vol. 48, November 2006.

Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Applications - U. Birnbaum, M. Haines, J.Fr. Hake, J. Linssen, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute of Energy Research Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (Germany). June 2008.

Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration Handbook - Torrero, E.; McClelland, R. (2002). National Rural Electric Cooperative Association Cooperative Research Network. 88 pp.; NREL Report No. SR-560-32455

Stationary Fuel Cells: An Overview – Dr. Kerry-Ann Adamson.


Portable Power

Beyond Batteries: Portable Hydrogen Fuel Cells - Carol Potera, Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 115, Number 1, January 2007.

Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets – This report assesses the market opportunity for PEM fuel cells in three near-term pre-automotive markets, including state and local emergency response agencies, forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and airport ground support equipment markets. April 2007. U.S. Department of Energy. A summary presentation given in June 2008 can be found HERE.

Micro Fuel Cells: Principles and Applications - Tim Zhao.

Portable Power: Fuel Cells in Action - A brochure published by the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association. March 2011.



A California Road Map: Bringing Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles to the Golden State – A report from the California Fuel Cell Partnership that discusses the current status of infrastructure to support fuel cell vehicles throughout the state and what efforts are needed to bring fuel cell vehicles into wider adoption.

A Portfolio of Powertrains for Europe: A Fact Based Analysis: The role of Battery Electric Vehicles, Plug-in Hybrids and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles - Concludes fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are ready for commercial scale-up, and essential to meeting our energy security and environmental needs. The report was sponsored by a 31-member public-private coalition and states that significant penetration of both fuel cell and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will be needed to build a sustainable transportation system by 2050 — and that FCEVs and BEVs could be cost-competitive with internal combustion engines (ICEs) as early as 2020. McKinsey & Company. November 2010.

A Road Map for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in California: A Zero-Emission Solution for Public Transit - A report from the California Fuel Cell Partnership that looks at the progress of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) in California and around the world, and offers recommendations to state and federal policy makers about actions they can take to put FCEBs on the path to full commercial readiness.

Comparing Electricity and Hydrogen as Carbon-Free Final Energy Sources - (German) report by LBST and Fraunhofer ISI that compares FCEVs and BEVs. Press release in English. June 2010.

Comparison of Transportation Options in a Carbon-Constrained World: Hydrogen, Plug-in Hybrids and Biofuels – C. E. (Sandy) Thomas, Ph.D. March 2008.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: The Road Ahead – report by Fuel Cell Today looking at the past, present and future of fuel cell electric vehicles. August 2012.

Hybrid, Electric and Fuel-Cell Vehicles - Jack Erjavec. 2006.

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells: Advances in Transportation and Power - Michael F. Hordeski. 2008.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations – The National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluates DOE/FTA bus programs. The site also contains presentations and publications by program participants.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Scooters for Urban Asia - Masters thesis by Bruce Lin for the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University. September 1999, updated September 2005.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Road Vehicles (Green Energy and Technology) - Dr. Pasquale Corbo.

Influences on the Low Carbon Car Market from 2020–2030 – A report by the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership (LowCVP) in collaboration with Element Energy that shows that the price of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will converge with conventional vehicles within the next 15-20 years. July 2011.

International Hydrail Conference - A website for international conference on hydrogen-powered trains. The site contains links to presentations and other news and information relating to this application.

Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption Displacement Potential up to 2045 - A report by Argonne National Laboratory that details the impact of technology improvements on FCEVs under the Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP). This report concludes that among all powertrain configurations that will experience weight reductions between 1-51 percent by 2045, fuel cell systems will see the largest reductions, correlating to increases in efficiency and peak-power performance. Additionally, fuel cell vehicles are expected to achieve fuel-consumption improvements of greater than 70 percent by 2045 compared to conventional gasoline vehicles from 2010. September 2011.

Sustainable Mobility: Renewable Energies for Powering Fuel Cell Vehicles - Raphael Edinger.

Transportation Energy Futures - The study is organized in four research areas: light-duty vehicles, non-light-duty vehicles, fuels, and transportation demand. Findings are detailed in a series of nine reports.  DOE, Argonne National Laboratory, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, March 2013.

Transportation Industry Review - contains an article by the California Fuel Cell Partnership’s Chris White titled "Deploying Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen in California."  American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE), July 2013. 

Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies – A Focus on Hydrogen - Committee on Assessment of Resource Needs for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies, National Research Council, July 2008.

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels - Finds that by the year 2050, the U.S. may be able to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent for light-duty vehicles - cars and small trucks - via a combination of more efficient vehicles; the use of alternative fuels like biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen; and strong government policies to overcome high costs and influence consumer choices. National Research Council, March 2013.

Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility - Examines the feasibility of a hydrogen-fueled PEM fuel cell barge to provide electrical power to vessels at anchorage or at berth. The study includes both a determination of the technical feasibility of the idea as well as an analysis of potential deployment options. Sandia National Laboratory, February 2013.

Zero emissions trucks: An Overview of State-of-the-Art Technologies and Their Potential - Assess zero emission drivetrain technologies for on-road heavy-duty freight vehicles.  The report looks at CO2 reduction potential, the state of these technologies, expected costs in case of a technology shift, the role of policies to promote these technologies, and greenhouse reduction scenarios for the European Union. CE Delft and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT),  July 2013.



10 Things You Should Know About a Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure for Automobiles - General Motors

Afterglow of a Myth: Why and How the Hindenburg Burnt - A report by Addison Bain and Ulrich Schmidtchen, published on the web site of the German Hydrogen Association.

Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements - Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, March 2008.

Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing - Dushyant Shekhawat II.

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Safety Report – A monthly electronic publication which provides information about developing hydrogen and fuel cell Codes and Standards and related safety information. Published by the Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association.

Hydrogen & Our Energy Future - A brochure from the U.S. Department of Energy that provides an in-depth look at hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

Hydrogen and Tort Law: Liability Concerns are Not a Bar to a Hydrogen Economy - William Vincent, Energy Law Journal, Vol. 25: 385. 2004.

Hydrogen: The Matter of Safety - Video on hydrogen safety that contains fuel cell information.

Hydrogen Safety: From Policies to Plans to Practices - S.C. Weiner, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; R.A. Kallman, City of Santa Fe Springs, CA; A. Ruiz, U.S. Department of Energy; J.M. Schneider, DaimlerChyrsler Corporation. This paper explores the approaches used for providing safety planning guidance to contractors in the context of their own policies, procedures and practices. 2005

The Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions - Energy Information Administration, August 2008.

Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders - Web-based course from U.S. Department of Energy that provides an “awareness level” overview of hydrogen for fire, law enforcement, and emergency medical personnel. This multimedia tutorial acquaints first responders with hydrogen, its basic properties, and how it compares to other familiar fuels; hydrogen use in fuel cells for transportation and stationary power; potential hazards; initial protective actions should a responder witness an incident; and supplemental resources including videos, supporting documents, and links relevant to hydrogen safety.

Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies – A Focus on Hydrogen - Committee on Assessment of Resource Needs for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies, National Research Council, July 2008.

Twenty Hydrogen Myths - A documented primer on hydrogen to clarify the abundant conflicting, confusing, and often ill-informed commentary on this fuel. It is written for both lay and technical readers, demystifies hydrogen energy, debunks popular misconceptions, and proposes a surprisingly easy, attractive, and profitable path to the hydrogen economy.  Rocky Mountain Institute. June 2003.



Catalysis in Electrochemistry: From Fundamental Aspects to Strategies for Fuel Cell Development (The Wiley Series on Electrocatalysis and Electrochemistry) - Elizabeth Santos.

Designing and Building Fuel Cells – A hands-on guide for the design, modeling, and construction of fuel cells by Colleen Spiegel. 2007.

Fuel Cell Handbook Seventh Edition – EG&G Technical Services, Inc, for the U.S. Department of Energy, November 2004.

Fuel Cell Technology: Reaching Towards Commercialization (Engineering Materials and Processes) - Nigel Sammes.

Fuel Cells - A journal covering all aspects of fuel cells, ranging from their molecular basis to application in systems, such as power plants, road vehicles and portable power sources.

High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications - S.C. Singhal.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy - (Monthly), Elsevier Science Ltd., publishers.

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based micro-scale direct methanol fuel cell development - Shi-Chune Yao, Xudong Tang, Cheng-Chieh Hsieh, Yousef Alyousef, Michael Vladimer, Gary K. Fedder, Cristina H. Amon, Carnegie Mellon University. Energy 31 (2006). The paper describes a high-power density, silicon-based micro-scale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), under development at Carnegie Mellon.

PEM Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts and Catalyst Layers: Fundamentals and Applications - Jiujun Zhang.

Platinum Metals Review - A free, quarterly journal of research on the science and technology of the platinum group metals and developments in their application in industry.

Recent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Studies - A compilation of studies examining cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells conducted under the Office of Fossil Energy’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program (formerly the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance or SECA program). July 2013.

Reformed Methanol Micro Fuel Cell Systems for Portable Power Applications - Jeff Morse, Ravi Upadhye, Robert Graff, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2006 Annual Meeting of AICHE.

A silicon-based fuel cell micro power system using a microfabrication technique - Zhiyong Xia, Philip C.H. Chan, Chunhua Feng, I-Ming Hsing, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology; Guizhen Yan, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology and Peking University. 2006 Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering.



2012 – Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan: Connecticut - Created by the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology with support from the US Department of Energy and the US Small Business Administration to make available information regarding the economic value and deployment opportunities for hydrogen and fuel cell technology. Development plans are also available for the following states:

2012 – Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan: Maine

2012 – Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan: Massachusetts

2012 – Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan: New Hampshire

2012 – Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan: New Jersey

2012 – Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan: New York

2012 – Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan: Rhode Island

2012 – Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan: Vermont

Addressing Climate Change with Fuel Cell Technology - Ballard Power Systems and Plug Power piece evaluating the impact of hydrogen and fuel cell technology on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential cogeneration, distributed generation, backup power systems, materials handling and public transit buses. The results were independently verified by The Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies (CEERT) and show that global GHG reductions through the year 2025 from these applications could be in the range of 30,000 to 115,000 kilotonnes, depending on assumptions made regarding production of hydrogen.

Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap Update - Authored by the Government of Canada, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada and PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2008.

H2UKMobility Phase 1 Results - This report summarizes key findings of the UKH2Mobility evaluation phase and outlines a scenario for the roll-out of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles to consumers in the UK.  April 2013.

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Market Preparation Activities in Germany – Kristin Deason, National Organization Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NOW GmbH), Hanns-Joachim Neef, Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Network North-Rhine Westphalia (FCHN NRW). ”The Journal of Fuel Cell Technology”, Vol.11, No.1 (Summer 2011).

International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy (IPHE) – Established in 2003 as an international institution to accelerate the transition to a hydrogen economy. Member countries include Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Commission, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Russian Federation, South Africa, United Kingdom, and the United States. Each country’s entry contains links to government programs and projects, latest media, reports and roadmaps, and recent IPHE statements.

Making Fuel Cells Work - A policy paper by Noriko Behling  published in the Issues of Science and Technology Journalof the National Academy of Sciences urges that the U.S. government implement a new fuel cell program that focuses on basic research. The new program would explore the mechanisms of fuel cells, resolve the persistent challenges involving high cost, and insufficient reliability and efficiency, and within the near term achieve fuel cell products that can compete with their conventional counterparts without tax incentives and subsidies.


Market Studies/Employment/Cost Analysis

Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell System for Transportation - This report by TIAX, Inc. summarizes the results of a U.S. Department of Energy funded assessment of the cost of a 50 kW fuel cell system for transportation including a multi- fuel capable reformer, a PEM fuel cell, and balance- of- plant components. October 2004.

Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress - U.S. Department of Energy report, estimates the effects on employment of a U.S. economy transformation to hydrogen between 2020 to 2050 and predicts 675,000 new jobs by 2035. The report includes study results on employment impacts from hydrogen market expansion in the transportation, stationary, and portable power sectors and highlights possible skill and education needs.

An Evaluation of the Total Cost Of Ownership of Fuel Cell Powered Material Handling Equipment - Assesses the total cost of ownership of fuel cell materials handling equipment and compares it to traditional battery-powered equipment.  Todd Ramsden, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, April 2013.

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies in Europe: Financial and Technology Outlook on the European Sector Ambition 2014- 2020 - A report by New Energy World Industry Grouping (NEW-IG) that reinforces that fuel cells and hydrogen technologies are among the key innovations that Europe will have to rely on in order to reach its ambition of a low carbon economy.

Fuel Cell System Economics: Comparing the Costs of Generating Power with Stationary and Motor Vehicle PEM Fuel Cell Systems - This report examines the economics of producing electricity from PEM fuel cell systems under various conditions, including the possibility of using fuel cell vehicles to produce power when parked at office buildings and residences. Timothy Lipman, University of California, Berkeley, with Jennifer L. Edwards and Daniel M. Kammen, April 2004. 

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Stationary Fuel Cell Systems - details efforts to conceptually design and estimate the capital cost of stationary fuel cell systems based on three different fuel cell technologies: low temperature (LT) proton exchange membrane (PEM), high temperature (HT) PEM, and solid oxide fuel cell.  Strategic Analysis, September 2012.

Fuel Cell Quarterly

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Summer 2009

Spring 2009

Fall 2008

Summer 2008

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Fall 2007

Summer 2007

Spring 2007

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